Last Meeting: Tuesday, October 16th, 2007 at: 10am PST/ 1pm EST
Navigation is the process by which the user traverses the content of the service.
The user must have at all times a sense of location and status. These should be manifest, but often they are not.
Questions we need to answer on behalf of the user
What is the shape of the space in which I'm traveling?
Where am I now?
How did I get here?
Where can I go? Where can I get to from where I am?
Where should I go, to achieve my current objective (complete my current task)?
How do I get there most effectively? Most efficiently?
Note: The answer to the last question may vary, depending on the experience of the user. Is the user a newcomer, a novice or occasional user, or an expert?
Note: A special case of navigation is the transition from the unauthenticated to the logged-in state. The landscape may change a great deal, as the user departs the public space, and enters the personalized space.
Question 1: The user may be asking: "Is there an overview of the space? Something that indicates its structure, and the features that populate it? I'd like to understand both the contours of the landscape, and its content. A map might help, or some sort of high-level depiction."
Question 2: The user may want to know where she is initially, when she enters the space (at the root of a tree perhaps?). As she moves through the space, she will want to know her location relative to her starting point and other reference locations.
Once logged in to a portal, the user perceives two portlet-inhabited spaces:
The space of all the portlets to which she is subscribed, represented by portlet windows arranged in columns under tabs, in a folder hierarchy, or some other arrangement.
The space of all portlets to which she has not subscribed, most like likely presented as a list or indexed catalog.
These two spaces are presented rather differently, but the user must navigate through both of them, identify positions in both, and have a mechanism for moving portlets from one to the other.
Summit Component Ideas
Site map (or maps)
Object titles (names of landmarks, landscape features)
Contextual help (ask "Where is here?")
Offsite content or remote location indicator
Note: Some of these ideas may have interesting accessibility implications. Waypoints and personal beacons may be contrived to be easily perceivable by all potential users.
In each of the following scenarios, the focus should be how the user knows where she is, how she got there, and where she can go to. These questions should also be addressed with the assumption that the user is employing an AT device or software product.
1. Logging in
User enters the login (home?) page for the service.
It is clear that this is a public page, with enterprise-ish content.
There is a prominent clickpoint inviting her to log in.
User clicks "login" and is catapulted into the Authentication service, where she is invited to supply her credentials. Important status information for her to understand includes:
What service she is logging in to
What credentials are needed
The security of the credential-entry service/form
How to cancel out and return to the home page
User enters credentials and clicks submit.
Feedback indicates success of submission or failure
User is dropped into the service
It is clear that she is now in her own personalized space.
The institutional banner is diminished, and public content is de-emphasized.
2. Interacting with Weakly-integrated Applications in uPortal
User logs in to the portal and decides to interact with a application through a portlet window that presents a single clickpoint.
The user clicks on the clickpoint.
An application is launched in a new browser window, obscuring the current display. At this point, a number of things are unclear to the user:
Where did the portal go? Am I still in it?
The authentication state: What is the "who am I" status for interactions within the window?
The relationship of the portal framework to the new window: How much management/control is available from the portal?
Can the session in the new window be terminated by logging out of the portal?
Are any of the portal-based navigation mechanisms available?
Can the navigation status be assess using an AT device or software product?
3. Entering and Leaving Portlet Focus Mode
In focus mode, the framework hands over control of (most of) the display to a portlet.
The user logs in to the portal and activates a clickpoint in a portlet window header. She observes the following:
Tabs and disappear from the display.
Portlet windows in columns disappear from the display.
The display is taken over by a single application.
Portal navigation is reduced to a "Return to Portal" clickpoint.
Desiring to go to another tab, the user clicks on "Return to Portal"
Tabs and other portlet windows are once again displayed.
The user clicks on a tab to go to the portlets under the other tab.
4. Detached Windows Launched from Portlet
The user logs in and commences interaction with a specific portlet.
The user initiates a process that involves the entry of text.
The portlet creates a new detached window with a rich text editor.
The user initiates another process involving the entry of text
Another detached window is created.
The user navigates to another tab and commences interaction with another portlet.
The user returns to the first detached window and enters some text.
The user signals to the portlet that she is finished with her interactions.
A dialog box appears requesting disposition of the detached windows.
This can play out in all sorts of ways. There are all sorts of ways the user can depart from the interactions. In all cases she should be protected from losing work, or leaving the application in an ambiguous state.
5. Navigating by Tagged Beacons
The user logs in to the service, intending to visit a portlet she used the week before to perform a Feng Shui analysis of her office space. She can't remember where the portlet is located or its title - it's one of several hundred in her extended layout. But anticipating a revisit, she dropped a blue beacon on it, labeled with a tag "Office Feng Shui".
She activates the "Show My Beacons" clickpoint.
A map of her layout space appears (schematic? pictorial? topographic? text list?)
Beacons appear at various points in the map, with abbreviated titles
She selects the most likely blue beacon. It displays the tag text "Office Feng Shui"
She activates (clicks on) the beacon image.
She is taken layout fragment containing the Feng Shui portlet.
Blue Sky Vision
We are considering a complex and heavily populated space for the user to travel through. She may be using an enterprise portal with hundreds of applications (portlets) to choose from. Her layout may be represented as a tree (much like a folder tree) with multiple layers containing scores of portlet windows. An application may manifest itself through a single portlet window, or multiple cooperating windows. In addition to displaying content in layout-embedded windows, portlets may launch multiple detached windows.
Also to be considered, is that the user may be using a device with limited resolution or display size, and yet may be traversing a complex hierarchy of pages.
An encoded version of the site structure, or machine-readable map of the space that the system can turn into various types of navigation (e.g. using Breadcrumb, Top Nav, Nested Left Nav, Tab components, Folders, etc.)
It could also represent the position of multiple "sub-pages" or portlets on an individual page.
It could display the tagged beacons or scent-marks deposited by the user on previous rambles through the site.
It could display a path between way-points visited on this or previous excursions through the site.
1.Help I'm lost! Where am I? Icon/Widget
This is an icon that persists on every page. If the user clicks it, a little div area or pop-up appears showing some type of site map indicating where the user currently is in the page navigation hierarchy. E.g. a "you are here" indicator.
Colour coding could be used to show the user all the sections they have visited.
It's some combination of a site map and breadcrumbs that tells the user where they currently are in the site and gives them the option to navigate to other places.
Imagine you are in a new city and have a map. This is a dot on a map that moves with you, showing your current position relative to the entire space.
May be a subset, or part of, #10.
rating - 4/2a
11. Management of detached windows
See Scenario 4 above.
What controls do the users see? (submit, print, resize, cancel)
Not losing any work the user does in detached windows (e.g. entering text) is an essential part of their management.
Multiple detached windows may be be active, and may be launched from different portlets or tools.
There are many different ways the user may depart from interaction with the windows. Each has to be handled.
User should be informed of state of window upon his return (espec. persons for whom visual context isn't helpful or sufficient).
12. Management of entry and exit from focus mode
portlet takes over the display window
question: how much of portal window is displayed
rating: 4/1-uPortal, 2a-others
13. Management of weakly-integrated applications (fire & forget)
May not be strictly a navigational component, but may be referenced by 13 and 3.
Summit Post-it Page
At the Fluid Summit, pain points represented on post-it notes were grouped into problem spaces (such as Feedback), then into (usually very high level) potential components such as the ones below. Each problem area was then rated as to whether it affected 1, 2, or 3/All of the Fluid applications (Sakai, uPortal, Moodle). Each potential component was then rated on the following matrix, which indicated how severe the pain point it helped solve was for users, as well as how frequently the pain point was encountered. It helped us determine how high a priority it was, with 1 being the highest priority and 3 being the lowest.
Navigation & My Status/Where am I
Excessive mode-iness - service forces user to exit a task before it is complete or lose information if the user needs to perform in an unrelated task.
Overlapping grade workflows of assignments, gradebook, T & Q, separated at rigidly.
Distinguishing Personal vs. Shared or other Categorization (mutable vs. unmutable)
My Workspace - relationship to other sites not clear
My Stuff vs. Other Stuff (sites, items, collections)
Undo does not work when editing text in text entry resource window
Undo (Emergency Exit)
I've done something I didn't mean to, take me back to the previous state
Pair: No undo (common action for users to choose functions by mistake)
Sometimes easy to make a mistake (web Mail) and I just want to be able to go back
Portal and Portlet level
Numerous points for users to do something they didn't mean to (maybe not even know what they did).
Need a way to back out
Permissions matrix is extra dangerous
Genera lack of undo
Spotty and inconsistent if undo is present
I messed up my customization how do I revert to my previous state?
How do I revert to the default state?
component type search - where do I look
no portal search
Cameo/Synoptic View or More Detail Window (related to Dashboard):
Detail more info but not whole window
Summary headers of last 10 emails
Sakai aggregated info
Important thing coming out of a tool (eg., number of new emails)
System wide links (high-level bookmarking - on every page)
Home/site map/ preferences
Site-wide system links
Lack of icons
Generally poor formatting
Titles don't change with content
Announcements vs. Edit announcements
Accessibility issue with screen readers
Should fit into breadcrumbs?
Dashboard / What's New / What's Important
Pain point - where should I look, where should I start?
Lack of aggregated content
What's new tool/utility
Home tool: (major usability issues, make My Home quick fix for info like iGoogle, maybe a Sakai UX project?)
Dashboard: View aggregator
My Workspace shows highlights of all my sites and what's going on in a snapshot
What's new and what has changed plus a notifier
Related to home and would be content specific to kind of site/project/course
Show me what is important and what's new and allow them to change every time both automatically and manually.
Awareness of others in collaborative space
Who I am determines what I see/Personalization/Concierge:
Concierge - give some advice about where I am and what I can do, knowing what you do know about me
Portal guest page - usually acts and looks like the authenticated view, no actions to signal login page, indicators of customization but no power/permissions to accomplish
Login does not meet user expectations
CAS (Central Authentication System) uptake
Leaving System in Unexpected Way/Opening New Window:
Fire and Forget Manager - maintain control relationship, portal to application/ make sure relationship is clear to user / manage SSO (single-sign on) & SLO/ reap windows
Portlets w/a single jumping off point/link are confusing. Why not aggregate links to make better use of space/make it clear it is just a link.
Don't use work draft saver associated with Wysiwyg type inputs
Users are sometimes taken to a completely new window without warning, e.g. Help icon links in News/Reader
Multi-content workflow, minimal content state surrounding banner
No indication of external vs. internal
No transition or message
Whole different interface/application
Resources: I keep wanting to click on links to Resources to edit, not download view them. It's disconcerting when a new page opens (e.g., when a link is opened).
Resources: confusing the way the folders are organized because user has to look in 2 places (breadcrumbs main window) to find their place in the hierarchy).
Resources: Copy/Move/Remove links are in a completely non-standard place. Why another menu?
If we want to use Attempts options, it's difficult to indicate all the options related to Attempts because some are in other sections (Moodle).
Top level navigation: Navigation form changes at various times, for instance going into settings removes tabs and different links become main navigation.
Navigation and action inconsistencies
Intra-tool navigation: navigation that takes you to every top level page in a tool, some tools behave like this and some do not. (Action menu/combo button)
Important to have Navigation tool conventions
Breadcrumbs: can't use the Back button and users want to navigate to a higher level page and understand where they are in a navigational hierarchy. Difficult to tell where you are in Resources/hierarchy when user has drilled down into a folder.
It is not immediately clear how to return to the course topics page after entering specialized areas as there are no clear procedures described. (Moodle)
Edit/Admin tabs (Ajax):
No indicator of edit capability
Ajax/js accessibility issues
Saving State (not losing work):
Task suspend plug in other tool view then resume task
Lack of cross-product workflow/communication
Support workflow: allow persons to preserve state when accessing other tools.
Pain point: Oh no! I have to go to another tool... when I get back have I lost work?
Save work message: users can easily get confused, lost in work in Sakai, choosing Cancel in wizard is example. This confirmation message would ask before losing info.
Save work reminder message: If going someplace else/doing something different allows me to lose work, then remind me.
Pain point: when am I leaving page/workflow? Do I lose work? Is it recoverable?